In May, Spain and Portugal approved 12-month caps on gas prices for power generation to smooth out electricity prices and ease the burden on industry and residential users.
Spain's third deputy prime minister and the ecological transition of population challenge secretary Theresa in Bella (Teresa Ribera) said at a news conference, the natural gas price ceiling will last one year, the first six months of the setting of 40 euros per megawatt hour, after half year raised 5 euros a month, in the next 12 months the average gas price ceiling for 48.8 euros/mw.
Electricity prices have risen in tandem with gas prices in Europe over the past year. Dutch TTF futures traded for June at 95.5 euros per megawatt hour on May 17, 2022, which is still about four times the price of a year ago, despite a big drop from March. In the pre-market on May 18, electricity prices in Spain and Portugal were both 194.86 euros per MWH, up from 76 euros a year ago.
Although the proportion of gas and electricity in the power supply structure is not high in Spain and even lower in Portugal, the cost of natural gas, as the fuel for gas units, affects the price of gas units, which in turn affects the wholesale price of electricity.
Teresa Ribera predicts that if the measures are implemented, Spain's average electricity price will fall to 130 euros per megawatt hour from 210 euros since 2022.
The decision has been agreed by the European Commission, but it still needs formal approval.
However, the government did not say how it would handle the difference between the price limit and the actual price.
Qin Yan, chief power and carbon analyst at Luvot and a researcher at The Oxford Energy Institute, said that in the context of the EU allowing member states to take short-term intervention measures, the Spanish government should subsidize the difference, and it is uncertain whether the source of financing will be solved by levying Windfall Tax.
Market Analysis of solid state vs mechanical relay
Industry competition and marketization degree: relay industry development is more mature, the market competition is more sufficient, major producing countries including China, the United States, Japan, Germany, etc., including the United States, Japan, Germany enterprise occupies most of the high-end relay market share, is mainly used in industrial automation control, automotive, communications, aerospace and other fields. The output of relays of Chinese enterprises accounts for about half of the global output of relays, but they are mainly medium and low-end products, which are mainly used in household appliances, electricity, automobiles and other fields.
Basic principles and classification of solid state vs mechanical relay
Basic concept and principle of relay: relay is a control component that automatically disconnects when the input parameters (such as electricity, magnetism, light, heat, sound and so on) in the circuit reach a specified value, which can make the output parameters of the circuit change in a predetermined step. In circuits, relays mainly control, protect, regulate and transmit information. The relay has an induction mechanism that reflects external input parameters, an executive mechanism that realizes "on" and "off" control of the controlled circuit, and an intermediate comparison mechanism that compares, judges and converts the size of the input.
As a control element, relays have the following functions:
(1) Expand the control range, such as multi-contact relay control signal reaches a certain value, according to the different forms of the contact group, at the same time open and close the multi-circuit;
(2) amplification, such as sensitive relay, intermediate relay, etc., with a very small amount of control, can control a large power circuit;
(3) comprehensive signals, such as when multiple control signals are input into the multi-winding relay in a specified form, after comparison and synthesis, to achieve the predetermined control effect;
(4) Automatic, remote control, monitoring, such as the relay on the automatic device and other electrical appliances together, can form a program control circuit, so as to realize automatic operation.
In the competition of the solid state vs mechanical relay market, enterprises in the United States, Japan and other developed countries constantly consolidate their dominant position in the global market by establishing technical standards, controlling core technologies, strengthening the integration of industrial chains, and firmly mastering the dominance of technical standards and international rules. In recent years, in order to further strengthen the core competitiveness, enterprises in the United States, Japan and other developed countries continue to expand solid state vs mechanical relay products and speed up technology integration. Their business scope has broken through simple relay manufacturing and developed to industrial control, system integration and other fields. The key to the competition in the high-end field has developed from the competition of quantity to the competition of the basic research and development of new relays, key materials, special equipment and other core products.
The raw material of the solid state vs mechanical relay
The solid state vs mechanical relay cost of relay is mainly determined by raw materials, which are mainly iron, silver, copper and other metals, accounting for about 74.4% of the production cost, labour and manufacturing costs accounting for 13.7% and 11.9% respectively, silver, copper and iron materials accounting for 36%, 21% and 7% of the raw material cost respectively. The price of three raw materials has a certain impact on the profitability of the whole industry. In addition to the main metal raw materials of the solid state vs mechanical relay, engineering plastics and enamelled wire are also important components of relays, and the overall supply of raw materials is stable at present.
The application domain of the solid state vs mechanical relay
The rapid development of solid state vs mechanical relay emerging relays. The application field of relays has changed from traditional application fields, such as household appliances and power automation control equipment, ships and new energy. Relay products have been transformed from low-end products to high-end products, such as high-voltage DC relay, high-performance industrial control relay, low-power energy-saving relay, new-generation communication relay, high-frequency relay, relay control components and other high-performance relays. The value chain of the relay industry is constantly extending to the high-end. In terms of product performance, it is developing towards the direction of more sensitive (low power consumption), smaller volume and higher performance (such as high-frequency relay).
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